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Viewing 121 to 150 of 7721
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2462
Ruipeng Zhang, Kaichuang Meng
Abstract Due to the increase of mining production and rising labor costs, manufacturers of construction and mining equipment are engaged in developing large tonnage mining truck with good dynamic performance and high transport efficiency. This paper focuses on the improvement of the dynamic performance of a 52t off-highway dump truck. According to the characteristics of its operating cycle, electric auxiliary drive system is installed in the front axle aiming at improving the utilization rate of ground adhesion. The new all-wheel drive hybrid electric system makes it possible for dump truck transports at a higher velocity. Both the conventional dump truck model and the new all-wheel drive hybrid truck model are built based on the AVL-Cruise platform. Meanwhile, under the premise of enough dynamic performance, fuel consumption can be minimized by collaborative optimization in Isight.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2368
Wenji Song, Weiyong Tang, Bob Chen
Abstract The 4JB1 diesel engine originated from Isuzu has large share in the China light duty truck market. However, the tightened NOx emission target enforced by NS-V legislation compared with NS-IV regulatory standard is very challenging for this engine platform which originally adopted the DOC+POC catalyst layout. Furthermore, combustion characterization of this type engine leads to high soluble organic fraction (SOF) content in engine out particulates, which requires the catalysts in the exhaust after-treatment system (ATS) to deliver high SOF conversion efficiency in order to meet the regulation limit for particulate matters (PM). In this paper, an innovative exhaust catalyst layout with DOC+V-SCR is introduced. The front DOC is specially formulated with optimized PGM (Platinum Group Metal) loading which ensures effective SOF oxidation while keeping sulfuric acid and sulfate generation minimal.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2383
Guoyang Wang, Jun Zhang, Bo Yang, Chuandong Li, Shi-Jin Shuai, Shi Yin, Meng Jian
Abstract Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a key technology for heavy-duty diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent nitric oxides (NOx) emission limits of regulations. The urea water solution injection control is critical for urea SCR systems to achieve high NOx conversion efficiency while keeping the ammonia (NH3) slip at a required level. In general, an open loop control strategy is sufficient for SCR systems to satisfy Euro IV and Euro V NOx emission limits. However, for Euro VI emission regulation, advanced control strategy is essential for SCR systems due to its more tightened NOx emission limit and more severe test procedure compared to Euro IV and Euro V. This work proposed an approach to achieve model based closed loop control for SCR systems to meet the Euro VI NOx emission limits. A chemical kinetic model of the SCR catalyst was established and validated to estimate the ammonia storage in the SCR catalyst.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2393
E. Robert Fanick, Svitlana Kroll
Abstract Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) are a group of compounds in engine exhaust that either form during combustion or are part of the fuel and lubricating oil. Since these compounds occur at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust, the methods for sampling, handling, and analyzing these compounds are critical to obtaining good results. An improved dilute exhaust sampling method was used for sampling and analyzing SVOC in engine exhaust, and this method was performed during transient engine operation. A total of 22 different SVOC were measured using a 2012 medium-duty diesel engine. This engine was equipped with a stock diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in series. Exhaust concentrations for SVOC were compared both with and without exhaust aftertreatment. Concentrations for the engine-out SVOC were significantly higher than with the aftertreatment present.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2450
Chao Xu, Fuyuan Yang, Jinyu Zhang
Abstract Power-split configuration is highlighted as the most popular concept for full hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). However, the energy management and design of power-split heavy duty truck under Chinese driving conditions still need to be investigated. In this paper, the parametric design, a rule-based control strategy and an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) for the power-split heavy duty truck are presented. Besides, the influence of a penalty factor also discussed under ECMS algorithm. Meanwhile, two different methods to search the engine operation point have been proposed and the reason of different economy performance is presented by using energy flow chart. And the simulation results show both fuel consumption can satisfy the second phase fuel consumption standard and the third phase fuel consumption standard which will be implemented in 2020, under C-WTVC (Chinese-World Transient Vehicle Cycle).
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2350
Chalermwut Wongtaewan, Umaporn Wongjareonpanit, Komkrit Sivara, Ken Hashimoto, Yoichiro Nakamura
Abstract In Thailand, most heavy-duty trucks were equipped with diesel engine, while a small portion was equipped with compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. However, in the past few years the number of CNG fuel trucks in Thailand has increased significantly due to the cheaper cost of CNG. In general, the emphasis of heavy-duty diesel engine oil performance is on piston cleanliness and soot handling properties, while thermal and anti-oxidation properties are most critical for CNG engine oil performance. For truck fleet owners who operate both types of trucks, using the inappropriate oil that is not fit-for-purpose can adversely affect engine performance and reduce engine service lifespan under prolonged usage. A novel CNG/diesel engine oil was developed to meet both JASO DH-2 heavy-duty diesel engine oil performance and CNG engine oil performance. The candidate formulation was proved adequately fit for practical use regarding to thermal and anti-oxidation properties.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2353
Bernardo Tormos, Leonardo Ramirez, Guillermo Miró, Tomás Pérez
Abstract One of the most interesting alternatives to reduce friction losses in the internal combustion engines is the use of low viscosity engine oils. Recently, a new engine oil category focused fuel economy, has been released in North America encouraging the use of these oils in the heavy-duty vehicles’ segment. This paper presents the results of a comparative test where the differences in fuel consumption given by the use of these oils are shown. The test included 48 buses of the urban public fleet of the city of Valencia, Spain. The selected vehicles were of four different bus models, three of them fueled with diesel and the other one with compressed natural gas (CNG). Buses’ fuel consumption was calculated on a daily basis from refueling and GPS mileage. After three oil drain intervals (ODI), the buses using low viscosity engine oils presented a noticeable fuel consumption reduction. These results bear out the suitability of these oils to palliate engine inefficiencies.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2351
Bernardo Tormos, Guillermo Miró, Leonardo Ramirez, Tomás Pérez
Abstract Low viscosity engine oils are considered a feasible solution for improving fuel economy in internal combustion engines (ICE). So, the aim of this study was to verify experimentally the performance of low viscosity engine oils regarding their degradation process and possible related engine wear, since the use of low viscosity engine oils could imply higher degradation rates and/or unwanted wear performance. Potential higher wear could result in a reduction in life cycle for the ICE, and higher degradation rates would be translated in a reduction of the oil drain period, both of them non-desired effects. In addition, currently limited data are available regarding “real-world” performance of low viscosity engine oils in a real service fleet.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2364
Jiaqiang Li, Yunshan Ge, Chao He, Jianwei Tan, Zihang Peng, Zidi Li, Wei Chen, Shijie Wang
Abstract Urea SCR technology is the most promising technique to reduce NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines. 32.5wt% aqueous urea solution is widely used as ammonia storage species for the urea SCR process. The thermolysis and hydrolysis of urea produces reducing agent ammonia and reduces NOx emissions to nitrogen and water. However, the application of urea SCR technology has many challenges at low temperature conditions, such as deposits formation in the exhaust pipe, lack deNOx performance at low temperature and freezing below -12°C. For preventing deposits formation, aqueous urea solution is hardly injected into exhaust gas stream at temperature below 200°C. The aqueous urea solution used as reducing agent precursor is the main obstacle for achieving high deNOx performances at low temperature conditions. This paper presents a solid SCR technology for control NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2359
Yaodong Hu, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang
Abstract Energy saving is becoming one of the most important issues for the next generation of commercial vehicles. The fuel consumption limits for commercial vehicles in China have stepped into the third stage, which is a great challenge for heavy duty commercial vehicles. Hybrid technology provides a promising method to solve this problem, of which the dual motor coaxial series parallel configuration is one of the best options. Compared with parallel configuration, the powertrain can not only operate in pure electric or parallel mode, but also can operate in series mode, which shows better flexibility. In this paper, regulations on test cycle, fuel consumption limits and calculation method of the third stage will be introduced in detail. Then, the quasi-static models of the coaxial series parallel powertrain with/without gearbox under C-WTVC (China worldwide transient vehicle cycle) are built. The control strategies are designed based on engine and motor performance.
2017-09-29
Technical Paper
2017-01-7004
Abhirup Chakraborty, Sagar Polisetti, Jayanthan Jayaseelan, Rajesh Upadhyay
Abstract Vibrational fatigue is a metal fatigue caused by the forced vibrations which are purely random in nature. The phenomenon is predominantly important for the components/systems which are subjected to extreme vibration during its operation. In a vehicle, an engine is the main source of vibration. The vibrational fatigue, therefore, plays a key role in the deterioration of engine mounted components. Multiple test standards and methodologies are available for validating engine mounted parts of an automobile. These might not be appropriate in the case of an off- road vehicle as the vibrational exposure of engine mounted components of an off-road vehicle is entirely different. In the case of an off-road vehicle, the engine mounted components are subjected to a comparatively higher level of vibration for a longer duration of time as compared to the passenger cars.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2500
Bo Huang, Wanyang Xia, Gangfeng Tan, Longjie Xiao, Zongsong Wang
Abstract Head-up Display (HUD) system can avoid drivers’ distraction on dashboard and effectively reduce collisions caused by emergency events, which is gradually being realized by researchers around the world. However, the current HUD only displays information like speed, fuel consumption, other information like acceleration and braking can’t be displayed yet. This research will use the indicator symbol‘s color and position change to remind drivers to brake or accelerate. Drivers can do driving operation timely and accurately. The system has the advantages of safety, intuition and real-time. The vehicle safe speed is calculated according to the road parameters, like adhesion coefficient and slope, and vehicle parameters, such as vehicle mass and centroid. Then, the appropriate braking operations are obtained by combining the vehicle driving state.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2493
Sivakumar Palanivelu, Jeevan Patil, Ajit Kumar Jindal
Abstract Apart from being an active safety system the brake system represents an important aspect of the vehicle dynamics. The vehicle retardation and stopping distance completely depend upon the performance of brake system and the functionality of all components. However, the performance prediction of the entire system is a challenging task especially for a complex configuration such as multi-axial vehicle applications. Furthermore, due to its complexity most often the performance prediction by some methods is limited to static condition. Hence, it is very important to have equivalent mathematical models to predict all performance parameters for a given configuration in all different conditions This paper presents the adopted system modelling approach to model all the elements of the pneumatic brake system such as dual brake valve, relay valve, quick release valve, front and rear brake actuators, foundation brake etc.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2505
Mahesh Shridhare, Santosh Sonar, Manish Ranawat, Ajit Kumar Jindal
Abstract This paper explains a method to estimate and reduce brake pulling of vehicles due to force difference between RH and LH brake during straight ahead braking. One of the cause of brake pulling during straight ahead braking is brake force difference between right and left brakes of front and rear axles. It is challenging to eliminate this unwanted pulling especially during panic braking in shorter wheelbase vehicles having high center of gravity (CG) and drum brake on all wheels. A mathematical model is developed to estimate amount of brake pulling from known parameters like brake force, tire properties, steering geometry, suspension hard points, vehicle CG, scrub radius, castor angle etc. Vehicle tests were conducted to measure amount of brake pulling and close correlation was observed between vehicle test results and derived model.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2491
Baskar Anthonysamy, Arun Kumar Prasad, Babasaheb Shinde
Abstract Automotive industry has led to constant production innovation among manufactures. This has resulted in the reduction of the life cycle of the design philosophies and design tools. One of the performance factors that have continues to challenge automotive designer is to design and fine tune the braking performance with low cost and short life cycle. Improvement in braking performance and vehicle stability can be achieved through the use of braking systems whosebrake force distribution is variable. Braking force distribution has an important and serious role in thevehicle stopping distance and stability. In this paper a new approach will be presented to achieve the braking forcedistribution strategy for articulated vehicles. For this purpose, the virtual optimization process has beenimplemented.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2508
Xianyao Ping, Shengguang Xiong, Gangfeng Tan, Jialiang Liu
Abstract Using friction brakes for long time can increase easily its temperature and lower vehicle brake performance in the downhill process. The drivers' hysteretic perception to future driving condition could mislead them to stop untimely the engine brake, and some other auxiliary braking devices are designed to increase the brake power for reduction of the friction brake torque. The decompression engine brake has complex structure and high cost, and the application of eddy current retarder or hydraulic retarder on the commercial vehicles is mainly limited to their cost and mass. In this paper, an innovative brake guidance system for commercial vehicles with coordinated friction brakes and engine brake is introduced to guide the drivers to minimize the use of the friction brakes on the downhill with consideration of future driving conditions, which is aimed at releasing the engine brake potential fully and controlling the friction brake temperature in safe range.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2534
Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado
Summary Considering that the most part of commercial vehicles are equipped with air brakes it is very important assure specific technical requirements for air brake system and its components. In addition, the effects of brake system failure are more critical for commercial vehicles which require more attention on their requirements details. Historically, the development of air brakes technology started on North America and Europe and consequently two strong and distinct resolutions were structured: FMVSS 121 and ECE R.13, respectively. For passenger cars were developed the ECER.13H to harmonize North American and European resolutions. However, for commercial vehicles regional applications, culture and implementation time must be considered. These commercial vehicles peculiarities must be understood and their specific requirements harmonized to attend the global marketing growth.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2535
Yongbing Xu, Binyu Mei, Longjie Xiao, Wanyang XIA, Gangfeng Tan
Abstract The continuous braking for the brake drum will cause the brake thermal decay when the heavy truck is driving down the long slope in the mountain areas. It reduces the heavy truck’s braking performance and the braking safety. The engine braking and the hydraulic retarder braking both consume the kinetic energy of the heavy truck and can assist the truck driving in the mountain areas. This research proposes a combined hill descent braking strategy for heavy truck based on the recorded information of the slopes to ensure the braking safety of the heavy truck. The vehicle dynamic model and the brake drum temperature rising model are established to analyze the drum’s temperature variation during the downhill progress of the heavy truck. Then based on the slope information, the combined braking temperature variation is analyzed considering the characteristics of the engine braking, the drum braking and the hydraulic retarder braking.
2017-09-16
Journal Article
2017-01-9183
Tine Christiansen, Johanne Jensen, Andreas Åberg, Jens Abildskov, Jakob Huusom
Abstract A methodology for the development of catalyst models is presented. Also, a methodology of the implementation of such models into a modular simulation tool, which simulates the units in succession, is presented. A case study is presented illustrating how suitable models can be found and used for simulations. Such simulations illustrate the behavior of the individual units and the overall system. It is shown how, by simulating the units in succession, the entire after treatment system can be tested and optimized, because the integration makes it possible to observe the effect of the modules on one another.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0161
Noboru Uchida, Hideaki Osada
Abstract To reduce heat transfer between hot gas and cavity wall, thin Zirconia (ZrO2) layer (0.5mm) on the cavity surface of a forged steel piston was firstly formed by thermal spray coating aiming higher surface temperature swing precisely synchronized with flame temperature near the wall resulting in the reduction of temperature difference. However, no apparent difference in the heat loss was analyzed. To find out the reason why the heat loss was not so improved, direct observation of flame impingement to the cavity wall was carried out with the top view visualization technique, for which one of the exhaust valves was modified to a sapphire window. Local flame behavior very close to the wall was compared by macrophotography. Numerical analysis by utilizing a three-dimensional simulation was also carried out to investigate the effect of several parameters on the heat transfer coefficient.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0123
Christopher Eck, Futoshi Nakano
Abstract Small commercial vehicles (SCV) with Diesel engines require efficient exhaust aftertreatment systems to reduce the emissions while keeping the fuel consumption and total operating cost as low as possible. To meet current emission legislations in all cases, a DOC and DPF and some NOx treatment device (e,g. lean NOx trap or SCR) are required. Creating a cost-effective SCV also requires keeping the cost for the exhaust aftertreatment system as low as possible because the contribution to total vehicle cost is high. By using more sophisticated and more robust operating strategies and control algorithms, the hardware cost can be reduced. To keep the calibration effort at a low level, it is necessary to apply only algorithms which have a time-efficient calibration procedure. This paper will focus on the active regeneration of the DPF. For safe and efficient DPF regeneration, a very reliable and stable DOC out temperature control is required.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0112
Guanyu Zheng
Abstract Urea injection is required to meet EU IV to EU VI emission regulations as a main stream technical route to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx). In heavy and medium duty trucks, compressed air at 3-5 bar is often available, therefore can assist urea injection by mixing with urea, forming liquid droplets, and releasing mixed fluid into the exhaust gases. The development of air assisted urea pump and injectors, or the assembly, seemingly simpler than airless counterparts, however poses multiple challenges. One challenge is to properly mix urea in the mixing chamber inside pump with the compressed air, leaving no residual deposits while achieving high mixing efficiency. Another is to maintain good spray quality for a given length of delivery pipe as the liquid phase and gas phase tend to coalesce as they propagate along the pipe flow direction. In addition, the urea pump and injector need to provide robust and reliable performance under stringent road conditions.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0057
Roberto Finesso, Omar Marello, Ezio Spessa, Yixin Yang, Gilles Hardy
Abstract A model-based approach to control BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and NOx emissions has been developed and assessed on a FPT F1C 3.0L Euro VI diesel engine for heavy-duty applications. The controller is based on a zero-dimensional real-time combustion model, which is capable of simulating the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, BMEP and NOx engine-out levels. The real-time combustion model has been realized by integrating and improving previously developed simulation tools. A new discretization scheme has been developed for the model equations, in order to reduce the accuracy loss when the computational step is increased. This has allowed the required computational time to be reduced to a great extent.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0095
Zbynek Syrovatka, Michal Takats, Jiri Vavra
Abstract An ongoing research and development activities on the scavenged pre-chamber ignition system for an automotive natural gas fueled engine is presented in this paper. The experimental works have been performed in engine laboratory at steady state conditions on a gas engine with 102 mm bore and 120 mm stroke, converted to a single cylinder engine. The in-house designed scavenged pre-chamber is equipped with a spark plug, fuel supply and a miniature pressure sensor for detailed combustion diagnostics. The engine was operated at constant speed, fully open throttle valve and four different fueling modes with or without spark discharge. A partly motored mode allowed direct evaluation of the pre-chamber heat release. The experimental data acquired in this research served as a validation data for the numerical simulations. The performed tests of prototypes and calculations have recently been expanded to include 3-D flow calculations in the Ansys Fluent software.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0164
Erik Svensson, Lianhao Yin, Per Tunestal, Marcus Thern, Martin Tuner
Abstract The engine concept partially premixed combustion (PPC) has proved higher gross indicated efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion engines. The relatively simple implementation of the concept is an advantage, however, high gas exchange losses has made its use challenging in multi-cylinder heavy duty engines. With high rates of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to dilute the charge and hence limit the combustion rate, the resulting exhaust temperatures are low. The selected boost system must therefore be efficient which could lead to large, complex and costly solutions. In the presented work experiments and modelling were combined to evaluate different turbocharger configurations for the PPC concept. Experiments were performed on a multi-cylinder engine. The engine was modified to incorporate long route EGR and a single-stage turbocharger, however, with compressed air from the building being optionally supplied to the compressor.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0026
Davide Paredi, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico, Angelo Onorati, Stefano Golini, Nicola Rapetto
Abstract The scope of the work presented in this paper was to apply the latest open source CFD achievements to design a state of the art, direct-injection (DI), heavy-duty, natural gas-fueled engine. Within this context, an initial steady-state analysis of the in-cylinder flow was performed by simulating three different intake ducts geometries, each one with seven different valve lift values, chosen according to an estabilished methodology proposed by AVL. The discharge coefficient (Cd) and the Tumble Ratio (TR) were calculated in each case, and an optimal intake ports geometry configuration was assessed in terms of a compromise between the desired intensity of tumble in the chamber and the satisfaction of an adequate value of Cd. Subsequently, full-cycle, cold-flow simulations were performed for three different engine operating points, in order to evaluate the in-cylinder development of TR and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) under transient conditions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0009
Federico Millo, Giulio Boccardo, Andrea Piano, Luigi Arnone, Stefano Manelli, Giuseppe Tutore, Andrea Marinoni
Abstract To comply with Stage IV emission standard for off-road engines, Kohler Engines has developed the 100kW rated KDI 3.4 liters diesel engine, equipped with DOC and SCR. Based on this engine, a research project in collaboration between Kohler Engines, Ricardo, Denso and Politecnico di Torino was carried out to exploit the potential of new technologies to meet the Stage IV and beyond emission standards. The prototype engine was equipped with a low pressure cooled EGR system, two stage turbocharger, high pressure fuel injection system capable of very high injection pressure and DOC+DPF aftertreatment system. Since the Stage IV emission standard sets a 0.4 g/kWh NOx limit for the steady state test cycle (NRSC), that includes full load operating conditions, the engine must be operated with very high EGR rates (above 30%) at very high load.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0018
Nikiforos Zacharof, Georgios Fontaras, Theodoros Grigoratos, Biagio Ciuffo, Dimitrios Savvidis, Oscar Delgado, J. Felipe Rodriguez
Abstract Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for some 5% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. They present a variety of possible configurations that are deployed depending on the intended use. This variety makes the quantification of their CO2 emissions and fuel consumption difficult. For this reason, the European Commission has adopted a simulation-based approach for the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of HDVs in Europe; the VECTO simulation software has been developed as the official tool for the purpose. The current study investigates the impact of various technologies on the CO2 emissions of European trucks through vehicle simulations performed in VECTO. The chosen vehicles represent average 2015 vehicles and comprised of two rigid trucks (Class 2 and 4) and a tractor-trailer (Class 5), which were simulated under their reference configurations and official driving cycles.
2017-08-25
Technical Paper
2017-01-1945
Dr. Raimund Varnhagen
Abstract During recent years, all major North American and European commercial vehicle OEMs have introduced predictive functionalities based on an electronic horizon for their on-highway fleets. This is a system concept that lets vehicles know what is happening on the road ahead and allows them to react to that information without driver involvement. When an electronic horizon is used in heavy-duty trucks, a significant reduction in fuel consumption is possible as a key application. This is achieved by optimizing the algorithms in the engine control unit, the transmission control device or other control units in the vehicle. There is a clear business case for the vehicle owners. In this paper we review the long development from early navigation technologies to an in-vehicle sensor, called an electronic horizon. We present an overview of different architectures from several perspectives as well as multiple use cases for commercial vehicles.
2017-08-25
Technical Paper
2017-01-7000
J. Marcos Garcia de la Cruz, Rowan D. Brackston, Jonathan F. Morrison
Abstract Road vehicles usually operate within windy environments. The combination of typical wind distributions and vehicle speeds, imposes on such vehicles aerodynamic yaw angles, β, which are often almost uniform up to 6° and relevant up to 14°. Drag saving devices are often optimized for zero cross-wind scenarios, minimizing drag only around these design conditions. This work presents the drag saving increase that an adaptive system can provide over a classic boat-tail. In the experimental set up employed, two flaps are located at the rear lateral edges of an Ahmed body and respectively set at angles θ1 and θ2 with respect to the model. To evaluate the efficacy of different flap positioning strategies under cross-wind, the model was tested in a wind tunnel, , with and without flaps at yaw angles β = 0°, 3°, 6° or 9°. The flap sizes tested, δ, were 9% or 13% of the body width. For each β and δ, the maps of drag against the two flap angles were obtained.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 7721