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Technical Paper

Challenges for Spark Ignition Engines in Heavy Duty Application: a Review

2018-04-03
2018-01-0907
Spark Ignition (SI) engines operating on stoichiometric mixtures can employ a simple three-way catalyst as after-treatment to achieve low tailpipe emissions unlike diesel engines. This makes heavy duty (HD) SI engines an attractive proposition for low capital cost and potentially low noise engines, if the power density and efficiency requirement could be met. Specific torque at low speeds is limited in SI engines due to knock. In HD engines, the higher flame travel distances associated with higher bore diameters exacerbates knock due to increased residence time of the end gas. This report reviews the challenges in developing HD SI engines to meet current diesel power density. It also focuses on methods to mitigate them in order to achieve high thermal efficiency while running on stoichiometric condition. High octane renewable fuels are seen as a key enabler to achieve the performance level required in such applications.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Particle Number Emission Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO)

2018-04-03
2018-01-0909
Diesel engines are one of the most important power generating units these days. Increasing greenhouse gas emissions level and the need for energy security has prompted increasing research into alternative fuels for diesel engines. Biodiesel is the most popular amongst the alternatives for diesel fuel as it is biodegradable, renewable and can be produced domestically from vegetable oils. In recent years, hydro-treated vegetable oil (HVO) has also gained popularity due to some of its advantages over biodiesel such as higher cetane number, lower deposit formation, storage stability etc. HVO is a renewable, paraffinic biobased alternative fuel for diesel engines similar to biodiesel. Unlike biodiesel, the production process for HVO involves hydrogen as catalyst instead of methanol which removes oxygen content from vegetable oil.
Technical Paper

Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0904
In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Compression Ignition Operation of a Heavy-Duty Engine at High Load

2018-04-03
2018-01-0898
Engine experiments were carried out on a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine to investigate the effects of Gasoline Compression Ignition on emissions and performance of a heavy-duty engine operating at a high load condition. Comparisons between gasoline fueled operation and diesel fueled operation are presented using a single, near top dead center injection. Although the fuel’s cetane numbers are very different, the combustion characteristics of the two fuels at high load are similar, with the gasoline-fueled case showing less than two crank angle degree longer ignition delay. Gasoline operation showed lower soot production at similar levels of NOx, initiating study of the impact of exhaust gas recirculation which spanned a range of NOx levels covering the range from minimal urea dosing to high urea dosing. A conventional soot-NOx tradeoff was found to exist with gasoline as exists with diesel.
Technical Paper

A Consolidated Investigation on LPG as an Alternative Fuel for Public Utility Jeepneys

2018-04-03
2018-01-0917
This paper presents the results of a two-phase Philippine study to determine the actual mileage (km/liter) of in-use diesel and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas or Auto-LPG) public utility jeepneys plying two separate Metro Manila urban routes using both on-road and chassis dynamometer tests. Measured average load factor in on-road tests was 60-70%. Dynamometer tests at 100% load factor utilized drive cycles derived from on-road speed data. A “diesel equivalent mileage” of actual LPG mileage, deemed indicative of LPG “fuel energy conversion efficiency” relative to diesel, was calculated (based solely on fuel heating values and densities) for comparing actual mileage from both fuels. The LPG actual mileage in both on-road and laboratory tests was lower than diesel mileage. In on-road tests, the LPG actual mileage was lower than diesel actual mileage by about the same percentage LPG heating value was lower than diesel’s per liter of fuel.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Modeling with Layered Artificial Neural Network Structures

2018-04-03
2018-01-0870
In order to meet emissions and power requirements, modern engine design has evolved in complexity and control. The cost and time restraints of calibration and testing of various control strategies have made virtual testing environments increasingly popular. Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL), Volvo Penta has built a virtual test rig named VIRTEC for efficient engine testing, using a model simulating a fully instrumented engine. This paper presents an innovative Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based model for engine simulations in HiL environment. The engine model, herein called Artificial Neural Network Engine (ANN-E), was built for D8-600 hp Volvo Penta engine, and directly implemented in the VIRTEC system. ANN-E uses a combination of feedforward and recursive ANNs, processing 7 actuator signals from the engine management system (EMS) to provide 30 output signals.
Technical Paper

Achieving Fast Catalyst Light-Off from a Heavy-Duty Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engine Capable of 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1136
Recently conducted work has been funded by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions for heavy-duty on-road engines. In addition to NOX emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG), CO2 and methane emissions regulations from heavy-duty engines are also becoming more stringent. To achieve low cold-start NOX and methane emissions, the exhaust aftertreatment must be brought up to temperature quickly while keeping proper air-fuel ratio control; however, a balance between catalyst light-off and fuel penalty must be addressed to meet future CO2 emissions regulations. This paper details the work executed to improve catalyst light-off for a natural gas engine with a close-coupled and an underfloor three-way-catalyst while meeting an FTP NOX emission target of 0.02 g/bhp-hr and minimizing any fuel penalty.
Technical Paper

Robust Path Tracking Control for Autonomous Heavy Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1082
With high maneuverability and heavy-duty load capacity, articulated steer vehicles (ASV) are widely used in construction, forestry and mining sectors. However, the steering process of ASV is much different from wheeled steer vehicles and tractor-trailer vehicles. Unsuitable steering control in path following could easily give rise to the “snaking” behaviour, which greatly reduces the safety and stability of ASV. In order to achieve precise control for ASV, a novel path tracking control method is proposed by virtual terrain field (VTF) method. A virtual U-shaped terrain field is assumed to exist along the reference path. The virtual terrain altitude depends on the lateral error, heading error, preview distance and road curvature. If the vehicle deviates from the reference line, it will be pulled back to the lowest position under the influence of additional lateral tire forces which are caused by the virtual banked road.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Lubricant and Coolant Pumps for Parasitic Loss Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0980
As fuel economy becomes increasingly important in all markets, complete engine system optimization is required to meet future standards. In many applications, it is difficult to realize the optimum coolant or lubricant pump without first evaluating different sets of engine hardware and iterating on the flow and pressure requirements. For this study, a Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine was run in a dynamometer test cell with full variability of the production coolant and lubricant pumps. Two test stands were developed to allow the engine coolant and lubricant pumps to be fully mapped during engine operation. The pumps were removed from the engine and powered by electric motors with inline torque meters. Each fluid circuit was instrumented with volume flow meters and pressure measurements at multiple locations. After development of the pump stands, research efforts were focused on hardware changes to reduce coolant and lubricant flow requirements of the HDD engine.
Technical Paper

Pressure Amplitude Influence on Pulsating Exhaust Flow Energy Utilization

2018-04-03
2018-01-0972
A turbocharged Diesel engine for heavy-duty on-road vehicle applications employs a compact exhaust manifold to satisfy transient torque and packaging requirements. The small exhaust manifold volume increases the unsteadiness of the flow to the turbine. The turbine therefore operates over a wider flow range, which is not optimal as radial turbines have narrow peak efficiency zone. This lower efficiency is compensated to some extent by the higher energy content of the unsteady exhaust flow compared to steady flow conditions. This paper experimentally investigates the relationship between exhaust energy utilization and available energy at the turbine inlet at different degrees of unsteady flow. A special exhaust manifold has been constructed which enables the internal volume of the manifold to be increased. The larger volume reduces the exhaust pulse amplitude and brings the operating condition for the turbine closer to steady-flow.
Technical Paper

An Integrated CFD and Truck Simulation for 4 Vehicle Platoons

2018-04-03
2018-01-0797
A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study was conducted on four-vehicle platoons, and the aerodynamic data is then coupled with a high-fidelity truck simulation software (TruckSim) to determine fuel efficiency. Previous studies typically have focused on identical two vehicle platoons, whereas this study accounted for more complex platoon configurations. Heavy duty vehicles (HDVs), both military and commercial, make up a significant percentage of fuel consumption. This study aimed to quantify fuel savings of a platoon consisting of dissimilar trucks and trailers, thus reducing vehicle operational cost. The vehicle platoon featured two M915 trucks and two Peterbilt 579 trucks with dissimilar trailer configurations. An unloaded flatbed trailer, a centered 20 ft shipping container, two 20 ft shipping containers, and a 53 ft box trailer configurations were utilized.
Technical Paper

Optimization Design of Rear-Engine Bus Cooling System Based on 1D/3D Coupling Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0771
This study investigated the effects of underhood structure parameters (two types of air ducts, two types of inlet grilles and the opening angle of inlet grilles) on the cooling characteristics of the rear-engine bus; then, the optimum design scheme of the underhood was determined. The air-side resistance load of the cooling system, which is based on fan performance, was selected as the optimization objective. Simulations were created based on a porous media model and standard a k-ε model. The next step was to build a 1D/3D coupling simulation to utilize the advantages of 1D simulation’s fast convergence speed and 3D simulation’s extensive research range. Besides, the use of 1D/3D coupling simulation can efficiently avoid the errors of simulation results which arise from the non-uniform airflow on the cooling module. Results show that the airflow rate of the rectangular air duct increased by 7 to 11percent.
Technical Paper

Utilizing spectral analysis to quantify resolution of low frequency behavior in testing commercial vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0747
Despite the recent broadening of acceptable test methods for certifying aerodynamic performance, there has been little attention on how to determine the time averaging window used for providing mean forces. This is of particular relevance to the assessment of commercial vehicles as they are significantly affected by low-frequency patterns that are hard to predict and vary with different geometry configurations. Published guidelines in the industry suggest that good engineering judgement be used and a qualitative assessment of force histories is adequate. These suggested methods leave the accuracy of the time averaging to the experience and judgement of the user and is highly dependent on the specific characteristics of the benchmark case. Furthermore these methods are not able to quantify the error present due to motions slower than length of the sampled data.
Technical Paper

Detailed Aerodynamic Characterization and Optimization of a Pickup Truck Using Adaptive Sampling based DOE

2018-04-03
2018-01-0743
A detailed Design of Experiments (DOE) study is presented to understand the aerodynamic effects of exterior design features and shape parameters of a pick-up truck using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The goal of the study is to characterize several key design parameters and the interactions between them as related to overall drag of the vehicle. Using this data, the exterior shape is optimized to minimize drag within specified design constraints. An adaptive sampling methodology is also presented that progressively reduces errors in the design response surfaces generated. This combined with a Latin Hypercube based initial design space characterization yields computational efficiency. A trend-predictive meta-model is presented that can be used for early design development. Results from the meta-model are also correlated with experimental data from the wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Active On-Board Alcohol Detection System with Safety Features for Commercial Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0602
Drink & drive has caused the increased rate of commercial vehicle accidents in the world due to the slow response to judgment and reasoning. According to research study 70% accidents are happened due to drunk & drive, it causes loss of human life and economic damage. Research has proven that drunk drivers exhibit aggressive driving behavior and apply more force during braking. While public health awareness and legal restrictions can assist in educating and discouraging people from drunk & drive, a more fool-proof method is not available in the market for commercial vehicles. Currently, a low cost, fail-safe onboard alcohol detection, and vehicle safety system is the need of the hour. This paper deals with the design & development of a low cost active onboard breath alcohol detection system and it’s on vehicle validation. Further, it explains the type of alcohol detection sensor used, controller design, logic programming and system packaging.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Pneumatic Braking Force Control for the Emergency Braking System of Tractor-Semitrailer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0824
As bottom layer actuator for the AEB system, the active brake system and the brake force control of tractor-semitrailer have been the hot topics recently. In this paper, a set of active pneumatic brake system was designed based on the traditional brake system of tractor-semitrailer, which can realize the active brake of the vehicle under necessary conditions. Then, a precise mathematical model of the active pneumatic brake system was built by referring the flow characteristics of the solenoid valve, and some tests were implemented to verify the accuracy and validity of the active brake system model. Based on the model, an active pneumatic brake pressure control strategy combining the feedforward and feedback controlling modes was designed. By generating the PWM control signal, it can precisely control the desired wheel cylinder brake pressure of the active brake system. Finally, the brake pressure control strategy was validated both by simulation tests and bench tests.
Technical Paper

A Braking Force Distribution Strategy in Integrated Braking System Based on Wear Control and Hitch Force Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0827
A braking force distribution strategy in integrated braking system composed of the main braking system and the auxiliary braking system based on braking pad wear control and hitch force control under non-emergency braking condition is proposed based on the Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) to reduce the difference in braking pad wear between different axles and to decrease hitch force between tractors and trailers. The proposed strategy distributes the braking force based on the desired braking intensity, the degree of the braking pad wear and the limits of certain braking regulations to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed.
Technical Paper

Lateral Dynamics and Suspension Tuning for a Two-Axle Bus Fitted with Roll-Resistant Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension

2018-04-03
2018-01-0831
In this paper, a new roll-plane hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system is proposed to enhance the roll and lateral dynamics of a two-axle bus. It is well-known that the suspension tuning is of great importance in the design process and has also been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for suspension tuning for the newly proposed HIS system especially considering lateral stability. This study aims to explore lateral dynamics and suspension tuning of a two-axle bus with HIS system, which could also provide valuable information for roll dynamics analysis. Based on a ten-DOFs lumped-mass full-car model of a bus either integrating transient mechanical-hydraulic model for HIS or the traditional suspension components, three newly promoted parameters of HIS system are defined and analyzed-namely the total roll stiffness (TRS), roll stiffness distribution ratio (RSDR) and roll-plane damping (RPD).
Technical Paper

Truck Brake Failure: Differences between Failure Modes for Drum and Disc Brakes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0528
On-highway heavy trucks are fitted with air disc brakes with increasing frequency. Disc brakes and traditional air drum brakes have different adjustment and heat dissipation characteristics. These differences lead to different failure modes when overheated. This paper describes how adjustment and other in-use factors affect the general braking capability of on-highway trucks fitted with disc and drum brakes. Simulations of a loaded tractor-trailer on a long, down-hill grade are used to predict brake temperature increase over time, and how that temperature increase can result in a runaway condition. The tractor and trailer are modeled with both traditional drum brakes and new disc brakes to illustrate operational differences between the two brake types.
Technical Paper

Introduction to Traffic Signal Data Loggers and their Application to Accident Reconstruction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0527
Each year in the United States, approximately 1 million collisions occur at signalized intersections, representing over 15% of all collisions and almost 9% of traffic fatalities. Engineers seeking to understand the roadway, vehicular, and driver factors related to these collisions are often asked to investigate and assess the traffic signal timing, right of way issues, and the signal indications displayed to involved drivers during the period of time leading up to and including the impact events. Until relatively recently, investigators were limited by the absence of any recording devices within the systems used for traffic signal phasing and timing. Accident reconstruction methods have long relied on the generalized signal phasing and timings programmed for that intersection by the responsible jurisdiction, combined with the vehicle dynamics calculated for the collision sequence in conjunction with witness testimony regarding signal indications and phase changes.
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