Challenges for Spark Ignition Engines in Heavy Duty Application: a Review
Spark Ignition (SI) engines operating on stoichiometric mixtures can employ a simple three-way catalyst as after-treatment to achieve low tailpipe emissions unlike diesel engines. This makes heavy duty (HD) SI engines an attractive proposition for low capital cost and potentially low noise engines, if the power density and efficiency requirement could be met. Specific torque at low speeds is limited in SI engines due to knock. In HD engines, the higher flame travel distances associated with higher bore diameters exacerbates knock due to increased residence time of the end gas. This report reviews the challenges in developing HD SI engines to meet current diesel power density. It also focuses on methods to mitigate them in order to achieve high thermal efficiency while running on stoichiometric condition. High octane renewable fuels are seen as a key enabler to achieve the performance level required in such applications.