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Technical Paper

Modelling a Rear Bumper of Goods Transport Vehicle Made of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer

2017-11-07
2017-36-0413
Abstract Due to the mass production process of the automobile industry, develop a product by reducing its cost has become an important aspect in its elaboration. This goal is to replace the higher cost material for an alternative that offers the same performance at a lower cost. The use of composite materials in the automotive industry has gradually evolved over the years. However, the use of composite materials in the structure of the automobile depends on a number of factors, such as large production scale, fast manufacturing process and economy, suiting the high demand of the automobile industry. Fiberglass composites are widely used in the market because of their good mechanical and physical properties combined with the comparatively low cost of production.
Technical Paper

Computational Simulation of Vertical Dynamics for an Off-Road Vehicle by Using Multibody Models

2017-11-07
2017-36-0441
Abstract In the last decades, the improvement of the automotive industry and the raising market exigence have stimulated studies in vehicle dynamics. That studies force the companies to focus their efforts in producing new conceptions and optimizing the existing ones, being able to obtain faster, safer, and more comfortable vehicles. The evolution of computing has made the task of making numerical simulations for complex models of vehicles. This allow the engineers to reproduce the real dynamic behavior of the vehicle submitted to a wide range of scenarios. Therefore, this study aims to use the multibody method to model and simulate, through computers, the vertical dynamic behavior of an off-road vehicle (baja) with a Double Wishbone suspension in both front and rear.
Technical Paper

Vibration Absorber Application, Case Study: Mid-Size Truck Steering Wheel Vibration

2017-11-07
2017-36-0125
Abstract In this paper an alternative engineering solution to control vehicle steering wheel vibration is presented. The strategy is focused on the implementation of an effective tuned vibration absorber which also complies with time frame and costs requisites. The vibration levels in this case study are enhanced due resonances in the chassis frame and steering column. The tuned mass damper is basically a suspended mass attached on a vulcanized rubber body, aiming for the customer benefits; this solution can be classified as low cost as well low complexity for implementation. In this case study, a mid-size truck was used as a physical hardware and the data were collected through accelerometers on the steering wheel and other critical components. As a control factor, different tunings on different parts were applied to optimize the auxiliary system performance and robustness.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Determination and Optimization of Bolted Joints

2017-11-07
2017-36-0294
Abstract In order to optimize the development of bolted joints used to components attachments in the Sidemember of commercial vehicles, the joints development has become relevant to better definition of the fasteners size, eliminating overweight and avoiding under or super-sized. This paper presents a development sequential approach of bolted joints applied on commercial vehicles ensuring the correct specifications usage of the fasteners and the joint to keep their clamp force. The evaluations were conducted based on theoretical and practical aspects applied on products and in the definition of all elements contained in a joint. The calculation methodology was developed based on standardized bolts and forces generated through the reactions of the components required for each vehicle family.
Technical Paper

Data Analysis of Off-Road Motorcycles in an Enduro Race

2017-11-05
2017-32-0033
Two-wheeled off-road vehicles are mainly ridden on slippery dirt roads that include steep slopes and rough, uneven surfaces. An analysis method for the driving state and the vehicle movement limits that would be suitable for analyzing the movement of such two-wheeled off-road vehicles under these conditions was examined. These movement limits were then formulated by taking into consideration the coefficient of friction and the road surface gradient in accordance with the basic laws of physics and also by focusing on the vehicle movement in the longitudinal direction. Measurements were also taken during actual off-road riding by top-class Japanese off-road motorcycle riders. It was confirmed that this measurement data was distributed within the range of the assumed vehicle movement limits. Consequently, it was confirmed that it is possible to use such measurements to accurately grasp the vehicle movement limits and the associated driving state for two-wheeled off-road vehicles.
Technical Paper

Validation Studies for an Advanced Aerodynamic Development Process of Cab-Over Type Heavy Trucks

2017-10-25
2017-01-7009
Abstract The implementation of an advanced process for the aerodynamic development of cab-over type heavy trucks at China FAW Group Corporation (FAW) requires a rigorous validation of the tools employed in this process. The final objective of the aerodynamic optimization of a heavy truck is the reduction of the fuel consumption. The aerodynamic drag of a heavy truck contributes up to 50% of the overall resistance and thus fuel consumption. An accurate prediction of the aerodynamic drag under real world driving conditions is therefore very important. Tools used for the aerodynamic development of heavy trucks include Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), wind tunnels and track and road testing methods. CFD and wind tunnels are of particular importance in the early phase development.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Selection in HD BSIV EGR Engine with the Help of Analytical Method and Correlation with Actual Testing

2017-10-16
2017-01-7007
Abstract Turbocharging has become an important method for increasing the power output of diesel engines. A perfectly matched turbocharger can increase the engine efficiency and decrease the BSFC. For turbocharger matching, engine manufacturers are dependent on the turbocharger manufacturers. In this paper, an analytical model is presented which could help engine manufacturers to analyze the performance of turbocharger for different load and ambient condition using compressor and turbine map provided by turbo manufacturers. The analytical model calculates the required pressure at inlet and exhaust manifold for fixed vane turbocharger with waste gate using inputs like BSFC, lambda, volumetric efficiency, turbocharger efficiency and heat loss, that are available with the engine manufacturer.
Technical Paper

Real World Fleet Test to Determine the Impact of Low Viscosity Engine Oils from Heavy-Duty CNG and Diesel Buses - Part I: Fuel Consumption

2017-10-08
2017-01-2353
Abstract One of the most interesting alternatives to reduce friction losses in the internal combustion engines is the use of low viscosity engine oils. Recently, a new engine oil category focused fuel economy, has been released in North America encouraging the use of these oils in the heavy-duty vehicles’ segment. This paper presents the results of a comparative test where the differences in fuel consumption given by the use of these oils are shown. The test included 48 buses of the urban public fleet of the city of Valencia, Spain. The selected vehicles were of four different bus models, three of them fueled with diesel and the other one with compressed natural gas (CNG). Buses’ fuel consumption was calculated on a daily basis from refueling and GPS mileage. After three oil drain intervals (ODI), the buses using low viscosity engine oils presented a noticeable fuel consumption reduction. These results bear out the suitability of these oils to palliate engine inefficiencies.
Technical Paper

Real World Fleet Test to Determine the Impact of Lower Viscosity Engine Oils from Heavy-Duty CNG and Diesel Buses. Part II: Oil Performance

2017-10-08
2017-01-2351
Abstract Low viscosity engine oils are considered a feasible solution for improving fuel economy in internal combustion engines (ICE). So, the aim of this study was to verify experimentally the performance of low viscosity engine oils regarding their degradation process and possible related engine wear, since the use of low viscosity engine oils could imply higher degradation rates and/or unwanted wear performance. Potential higher wear could result in a reduction in life cycle for the ICE, and higher degradation rates would be translated in a reduction of the oil drain period, both of them non-desired effects. In addition, currently limited data are available regarding “real-world” performance of low viscosity engine oils in a real service fleet.
Technical Paper

The Application of Solid Selective Catalytic Reduction on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2364
Abstract Urea SCR technology is the most promising technique to reduce NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines. 32.5wt% aqueous urea solution is widely used as ammonia storage species for the urea SCR process. The thermolysis and hydrolysis of urea produces reducing agent ammonia and reduces NOx emissions to nitrogen and water. However, the application of urea SCR technology has many challenges at low temperature conditions, such as deposits formation in the exhaust pipe, lack deNOx performance at low temperature and freezing below -12°C. For preventing deposits formation, aqueous urea solution is hardly injected into exhaust gas stream at temperature below 200°C. The aqueous urea solution used as reducing agent precursor is the main obstacle for achieving high deNOx performances at low temperature conditions. This paper presents a solid SCR technology for control NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Development of a DOC+SCR Exhaust Catalyst System for Light Duty Truck (N2 Category) Meeting NS-V Regulation

2017-10-08
2017-01-2368
Abstract The 4JB1 diesel engine originated from Isuzu has large share in the China light duty truck market. However, the tightened NOx emission target enforced by NS-V legislation compared with NS-IV regulatory standard is very challenging for this engine platform which originally adopted the DOC+POC catalyst layout. Furthermore, combustion characterization of this type engine leads to high soluble organic fraction (SOF) content in engine out particulates, which requires the catalysts in the exhaust after-treatment system (ATS) to deliver high SOF conversion efficiency in order to meet the regulation limit for particulate matters (PM). In this paper, an innovative exhaust catalyst layout with DOC+V-SCR is introduced. The front DOC is specially formulated with optimized PGM (Platinum Group Metal) loading which ensures effective SOF oxidation while keeping sulfuric acid and sulfate generation minimal.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption Analysis and Optimizing of a Heavy Duty Dual Motor Coaxial Series-Parallel Hybrid Lorry under C-WTVC

2017-10-08
2017-01-2359
Abstract Energy saving is becoming one of the most important issues for the next generation of commercial vehicles. The fuel consumption limits for commercial vehicles in China have stepped into the third stage, which is a great challenge for heavy duty commercial vehicles. Hybrid technology provides a promising method to solve this problem, of which the dual motor coaxial series parallel configuration is one of the best options. Compared with parallel configuration, the powertrain can not only operate in pure electric or parallel mode, but also can operate in series mode, which shows better flexibility. In this paper, regulations on test cycle, fuel consumption limits and calculation method of the third stage will be introduced in detail. Then, the quasi-static models of the coaxial series parallel powertrain with/without gearbox under C-WTVC (China worldwide transient vehicle cycle) are built. The control strategies are designed based on engine and motor performance.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion Characteristics in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine under Light Load with Methanol Addition

2017-10-08
2017-01-2268
Abstract Engines fuelled with Liquefied natural gas (LNG) have been widely used in the heavy-duty vehicles. However, they suffer from poor combustion performance and flame instability under fuel-lean condition. In this work, experiments were performed on a turbo-charged, spark-ignition engine fuelled with natural gas (NG) and methanol. The combustion characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate (HRR), burned mass fraction (BMF), ringing/knock intensity (RI), ignition delay, centroid of HRR, and coefficient of variation (COV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) were analyzed under light load (brake mean effective pressure=0.3876 MPa) with different methanol substitution rates (MSR=0%, 16%, 34%, 46%). The experimental results showed that combustion phase advanced with the increase in MSR due to faster burning velocity of methanol. Knock only occurred at MSR=46%, 2000 rpm.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Injection Strategy on Combustion and Emission in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fueled with Gasoline

2017-10-08
2017-01-2266
Abstract Gasoline partially premixed combustion shows the potential to achieve clean and high-efficiency combustion. Injection strategies show great influence on in-cylinder air flow and in-cylinder fuel distribution before auto-ignition, which can significantly affect the combustion characteristics and emissions. This study explored the effects of various injection strategies, including port fuel injection (PFI), single direct injection (DIm), double direct injection (DIp+DIm) and port fuel injection coupled with a direct injection (PFI+DIm) on the combustion characteristics and emissions in a modified single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with 92# gasoline at low load. The investigation consists of two parts. Firstly, the comparison among PFI, PFI+DIm, and DIp+DIm strategies was conducted at a fixed CA50 to explore the effects of PFI+DIm and DIp+DIm strategies on the thermal efficiency and combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Effect of Pilot Diesel Multiple Injections on the Performance and the Emissions of a Diesel/Natural Gas Dual Fuel Heavy-Duty Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2271
Abstract For diesel/natural gas dual fuel engines, the combustion of pilot diesel injection plays an important role to subsequent mixture combustion process. To better understand the effects of multiple injections, a detailed study was conducted on a 6-cylinder turbocharged intercooler diesel/natural gas dual fuel heavy-duty engine at low loads. Multiple variables were tested, including the single injection timings, the multiple injections timings and the mass ratios. The investigated results showed that the multiple pilot diesel injections have an obvious effect on not only pilot diesel combustion process but also natural gas mixture combustion process. Early injection leads to a pilot-diesel-ignition-mode and it is a two-stage auto ignition mode. This mode differs from the compression ignition mode of traditional diesel engine in regard to its random occurrence location within the spray.
Technical Paper

Driving Force Coordinated Control of Separated Axle Hybrid Electric Dump Truck

2017-10-08
2017-01-2462
Abstract Due to the increase of mining production and rising labor costs, manufacturers of construction and mining equipment are engaged in developing large tonnage mining truck with good dynamic performance and high transport efficiency. This paper focuses on the improvement of the dynamic performance of a 52t off-highway dump truck. According to the characteristics of its operating cycle, electric auxiliary drive system is installed in the front axle aiming at improving the utilization rate of ground adhesion. The new all-wheel drive hybrid electric system makes it possible for dump truck transports at a higher velocity. Both the conventional dump truck model and the new all-wheel drive hybrid truck model are built based on the AVL-Cruise platform. Meanwhile, under the premise of enough dynamic performance, fuel consumption can be minimized by collaborative optimization in Isight.
Technical Paper

Dilute Measurement of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2393
Abstract Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) are a group of compounds in engine exhaust that either form during combustion or are part of the fuel and lubricating oil. Since these compounds occur at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust, the methods for sampling, handling, and analyzing these compounds are critical to obtaining good results. An improved dilute exhaust sampling method was used for sampling and analyzing SVOC in engine exhaust, and this method was performed during transient engine operation. A total of 22 different SVOC were measured using a 2012 medium-duty diesel engine. This engine was equipped with a stock diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in series. Exhaust concentrations for SVOC were compared both with and without exhaust aftertreatment. Concentrations for the engine-out SVOC were significantly higher than with the aftertreatment present.
Technical Paper

Development of Model Based Closed Loop Control Strategy of SCR System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2383
Abstract Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a key technology for heavy-duty diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent nitric oxides (NOx) emission limits of regulations. The urea water solution injection control is critical for urea SCR systems to achieve high NOx conversion efficiency while keeping the ammonia (NH3) slip at a required level. In general, an open loop control strategy is sufficient for SCR systems to satisfy Euro IV and Euro V NOx emission limits. However, for Euro VI emission regulation, advanced control strategy is essential for SCR systems due to its more tightened NOx emission limit and more severe test procedure compared to Euro IV and Euro V. This work proposed an approach to achieve model based closed loop control for SCR systems to meet the Euro VI NOx emission limits. A chemical kinetic model of the SCR catalyst was established and validated to estimate the ammonia storage in the SCR catalyst.
Technical Paper

The Research of the Heavy Truck’s Warming System

2017-10-08
2017-01-2221
Abstract It’s not easy to start the engine in winter, especially in frigid highlands, because the low temperature increases the fuel’s viscosity, decreasing the lubricating oil flow ability and the storage performance of battery. Current electrical heating method can improve the engine starting performance in low temperature condition, but this method adds an external power to the engine, leading to the engine cannot maintain an efficient energy utilization. A warming device using the solar energy is designed to conserve the energy during the daytime, and directly warm up the engine at the time when the engine turns off for a long time, especially during the night. A solar collector installed on the top of the vehicle is used to convert the solar energy to the thermal energy, which is then transferred to the heat accumulator that contain the phase-change medium which can increase the heat storage performance.
Technical Paper

Investigation of EGR and Miller Cycle for NOx Emissions and Exhaust Temperature Control of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2227
Abstract In order to meet increasingly stringent emissions standards and lower the fuel consumption of heavy-duty (HD) vehicles, significant efforts have been made to develop high efficiency and clean diesel engines and aftertreatment systems. However, a trade-off between the actual engine efficiency and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission remains to minimize the operational costs. In addition, the conversion efficiency of the diesel aftertreatment system decreases rapidly with lower exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), which occurs at low load operations. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the optimum combustion and engine control strategies that can lower the vehicle’s running costs by maintaining low engine-out NOx emissions while increasing the conversion efficiency of the NOx aftertreament system through higher EGTs.
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