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Technical Paper

Improve Frame Assembly Flexibility with Low Investment

2017-11-07
2017-36-0132
Commercial vehicles are being developed for long decades in Brazil creating a deep background on manufacturing process. With the current scenario a variety of different vehicles specifications (weight capacity, load distribution, torque, size, etc.) are being required by the market. Joints with bolts and nuts are the engineering solution for the most of the problems found in automotive engineering regarding commercial vehicles. Screw processes were made during the last 150 years. Nowadays current frame modifications on aftermarket are made with arc weld process that affects directly the material properties and the process needs to be performed by critical personal with training and capacity. In addition cost and timing does not fit for the best equation on how to proceed with the modifications. The solution proposed brings more flexibility on frame assemblies that can be extended to other products.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Integration, Gear Material and Heat Treatment Effects on Rear Axle Whining Noise

2017-11-07
2017-36-0129
This paper will focus whining noise on rear axles applied in mid-size trucks. Vehicle integration changes during development affect directly the gear noise perception, in which it may be intensified. Also, gear material and heat treatment choices for the rear axle need to be done carefully, taking into consideration the integration changes and also the driver usage. A lessons learned collection over the diverse aspects of a rear axle whining noise will be the basis of this paper.
Technical Paper

Supplier Base Optimization on MWM MAR-I Diesel Engines Launch

2017-11-07
2017-36-0139
Due to the introduction of PROCONVE MAR-I emission regulation, the Brazilian automotive industry developed Diesel engines to comply with this legislation demanding new components to automotive supplier base. However, at the same time this industrial sector was facing a difficult financial situation caused mainly by the crisis that impacted Brazil in last years. In 2015, around 27 local suppliers filed for bankruptcy affecting the whole Automotive Supply Chain. This scenario already represents a problem for current products established in market, but it represents a major challenge for new launches. This paper will discuss how MWM Motores Diesel made sourcing decisions and manage to develop components and suppliers in this harsh scenario, also looking for the supplier base optimization.
Technical Paper

Power Cell Unit (PCU) for Modern HDD Engines

2017-11-07
2017-36-0301
Governmental legislation with regards to emissions is an important driver for Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine developments. To reach the targets, in most of cases it is necessary to increase the thermal-mechanical loads, increasing the level of technical demand for the engine components. Besides that, other important aspects drive the engine development, as the cost of ownership, demanding for instance an extended oil draining interval, which leads to harsher environment for the engine components. In order to cope with the modern engine demands, this article presents a piston and piston rings specially designed to meet these targets in a robust way. Starting with the ring pack, CrN based coatings applied by PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) are commonly applied to top ring face to reach durability targets.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Determination and Optimization of Bolted Joints

2017-11-07
2017-36-0294
In order to optimize the development of bolted joints used to components attachments in the Sidemember of commercial vehicles, the joints development has become relevant to better definition of the fasteners size, eliminating overweight and avoiding under or super-sized. This paper presents a development sequential approach of bolted joints applied on commercial vehicles ensuring the correct specifications usage of the fasteners and the joint to keep their clamp force. The evaluations were conducted based on theoretical and practical aspects applied on products and in the definition of all elements contained in a joint. The calculation methodology was developed based on standardized bolts and forces generated through the reactions of the components required for each vehicle family.
Technical Paper

Computational Simulation of Vertical Dynamics for an Off-Road Vehicle by Using Multibody Models

2017-11-07
2017-36-0441
In the last decades, the improvement of the automotive industry and the raising market exigence have stimulated studies in vehicle dynamics. That studies force the companies to focus their efforts in producing new conceptions and optimizing the existing ones, being able to obtain faster, safer, and more comfortable vehicles. The evolution of computing has made the task of making numerical simulations for complex models of vehicles. This allow the engineers to reproduce the real dynamic behavior of the vehicle submitted to a wide range of scenarios. Therefore, this study aims to use the multibody method to model and simulate, through computers, the vertical dynamic behavior of an off-road vehicle (baja) with a Double Wishbone suspension in both front and rear.
Technical Paper

Modelling a Rear Bumper of Goods Transport Vehicle Made of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer

2017-11-07
2017-36-0413
Due to the mass production process of the automobile industry, develop a product by reducing its cost has become an important aspect in its elaboration. This goal is to replace the higher cost material for an alternative that offers the same performance at a lower cost. The use of composite materials in the automotive industry has gradually evolved over the years. However, the use of composite materials in the structure of the automobile depends on a number of factors, such as large production scale, fast manufacturing process and economy, suiting the high demand of the automobile industry. Fiberglass composites are widely used in the market because of their good mechanical and physical properties combined with the comparatively low cost of production.
Technical Paper

Data Analysis of Off-Road Motorcycles in an Enduro Race

2017-11-05
2017-32-0033
Two-wheeled off-road vehicles are mainly ridden on slippery dirt roads that include steep slopes and rough, uneven surfaces. An analysis method for the driving state and the vehicle movement limits that would be suitable for analyzing the movement of such two-wheeled off-road vehicles under these conditions was examined. These movement limits were then formulated by taking into consideration the coefficient of friction and the road surface gradient in accordance with the basic laws of physics and also by focusing on the vehicle movement in the longitudinal direction. Measurements were also taken during actual off-road riding by top-class Japanese off-road motorcycle riders. It was confirmed that this measurement data was distributed within the range of the assumed vehicle movement limits. Consequently, it was confirmed that it is possible to use such measurements to accurately grasp the vehicle movement limits and the associated driving state for two-wheeled off-road vehicles.
Technical Paper

Validation Studies for an Advanced Aerodynamic Development Process of Cab-Over Type Heavy Trucks

2017-10-25
2017-01-7009
The implementation of an advanced process for the aerodynamic development of cab-over type heavy trucks at China FAW Group Corporation (FAW) requires a rigorous validation of the tools employed in this process. The final objective of the aerodynamic optimization of a heavy truck is the reduction of the fuel consumption. The aerodynamic drag of a heavy truck contributes up to 50% of the overall resistance and thus fuel consumption. An accurate prediction of the aerodynamic drag under real world driving conditions is therefore very important. Tools used for the aerodynamic development of heavy trucks include Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), wind tunnels and track and road testing methods. CFD and wind tunnels are of particular importance in the early phase development.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Selection in HD BSIV EGR Engine with the Help of Analytical Method and Correlation with Actual Testing

2017-10-16
2017-01-7007
Turbocharging has become an important method for increasing the power output of diesel engines. A perfectly matched turbocharger can increase the engine efficiency and decrease the BSFC. For turbocharger matching, engine manufacturers are dependent on the turbocharger manufacturers. In this paper, an analytical model is presented which could help engine manufacturers to analyze the performance of turbocharger for different load and ambient condition using compressor and turbine map provided by turbo manufacturers. The analytical model calculates the required pressure at inlet and exhaust manifold for fixed vane turbocharger with waste gate using inputs like BSFC, lambda, volumetric efficiency, turbocharger efficiency and heat loss, that are available with the engine manufacturer.
Technical Paper

Electronic Bi-Directional Shift Control Design and Calibration for Farm Vehicle

2017-10-08
2017-01-2205
Agricultural tractors are often subjected to various applications like front end loading work, cultivation work, where frequent forward and reverse gears are needed. Most of Indian agricultural tractors are equipped with mechanical transmission system which demands repeated clutching and de-clutching operation for such applications resulting in increased operator fatigue and lesser productivity. Also need of electronics in Indian agricultural industry for better farm mechanization is growing high. This research work depicts development of electronic bi-directional shifting (power shuttle) control design and calibration for farm vehicle fitted with wet clutch transmission. This research also reduces operator fatigue via frequent directional shift through electronic transmission. The control system is designed without any electronic interfacing with engine and also provides clutch-less gear shifting and auto-launch which offers ease to drive even for novice driver.
Technical Paper

Investigation of EGR and Miller Cycle for NOx Emissions and Exhaust Temperature Control of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2227
In order to meet increasingly stringent emissions standards and lower the fuel consumption of heavy-duty (HD) vehicles, significant efforts have been made to develop high efficiency and clean diesel engines and aftertreatment systems. However, a trade-off between the actual engine efficiency and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission remains to minimize the operational costs. In addition, the conversion efficiency of the diesel aftertreatment system decreases rapidly with lower exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), which occurs at low load operations. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the optimum combustion and engine control strategies that can lower the vehicle’s running costs by maintaining low engine-out NOx emissions while increasing the conversion efficiency of the NOx aftertreament system through higher EGTs.
Technical Paper

The Research of the Heavy Truck’s Warming System

2017-10-08
2017-01-2221
It’s not easy to start the engine in winter, especially in frigid highlands, because the low temperature increases the fuel’s viscosity, decreasing the lubricating oil flow ability and the storage performance of battery. Current electrical heating method can improve the engine starting performance in low temperature condition, but this method adds an external power to the engine, leading to the engine cannot maintain an efficient energy utilization. A warming device using the solar energy is designed to conserve the energy during the daytime, and directly warm up the engine at the time when the engine turns off for a long time, especially during the night. A solar collector installed on the top of the vehicle is used to convert the solar energy to the thermal energy, which is then transferred to the heat accumulator that contain the phase-change medium which can increase the heat storage performance.
Technical Paper

The Application of Solid Selective Catalytic Reduction on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2364
Urea SCR technology is the most promising technique to reduce NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines. 32.5wt% aqueous urea solution is widely used as ammonia storage species for the urea SCR process. The thermolysis and hydrolysis of urea produces reducing agent ammonia and reduces NOx emissions to nitrogen and water. However, the application of urea SCR technology has many challenges at low temperature conditions, such as deposits formation in the exhaust pipe, lack deNOx performance at low temperature and freezing below -12°C. For preventing deposits formation, aqueous urea solution is hardly injected into exhaust gas stream at temperature below 200°C. The aqueous urea solution used as reducing agent precursor is the main obstacle for achieving high deNOx performances at low temperature conditions. This paper presents a solid SCR technology for control NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption Analysis and Optimizing of a Heavy Duty Dual Motor Coaxial Series-Parallel Hybrid Lorry under C-WTVC

2017-10-08
2017-01-2359
Energy saving is becoming one of the most important issues for the next generation of commercial vehicles. The fuel consumption limits for commercial vehicles in China have stepped into the third stage, which is a great challenge for heavy duty commercial vehicles. Hybrid technology provides a promising method to solve this problem, of which the dual motor coaxial series parallel configuration is one of the best options. Compared with parallel configuration, the powertrain can not only operate in pure electric or parallel mode, but also can operate in series mode, which shows better flexibility. In this paper, regulations on test cycle, fuel consumption limits and calculation method of the third stage will be introduced in detail. Then, the quasi-static models of the coaxial series parallel powertrain with/without gearbox under C-WTVC (China worldwide transient vehicle cycle) are built. The control strategies are designed based on engine and motor performance.
Technical Paper

Real World Fleet Test to Determine the Impact of Low Viscosity Engine Oils from Heavy-Duty CNG and Diesel Buses - Part I: Fuel Consumption

2017-10-08
2017-01-2353
One of the most interesting alternatives to reduce friction losses in the internal combustion engines is the use of low viscosity engine oils. Recently, a new engine oil category focused fuel economy, has been released in North America encouraging the use of these oils in the heavy-duty vehicles’ segment. This paper presents the results of a comparative test where the differences in fuel consumption given by the use of these oils are shown. The test included 48 buses of the urban public fleet of the city of Valencia, Spain. The selected vehicles were of four different bus models, three of them fueled with diesel and the other one with compressed natural gas (CNG). Buses’ fuel consumption was calculated on a daily basis from refueling and GPS mileage. After three oil drain intervals (ODI), the buses using low viscosity engine oils presented a noticeable fuel consumption reduction. These results bear out the suitability of these oils to palliate engine inefficiencies.
Technical Paper

Real World Fleet Test to Determine the Impact of Lower Viscosity Engine Oils from Heavy-Duty CNG and Diesel Buses. Part II: Oil Performance

2017-10-08
2017-01-2351
Low viscosity engine oils are considered a feasible solution for improving fuel economy in internal combustion engines (ICE). So, the aim of this study was to verify experimentally the performance of low viscosity engine oils regarding their degradation process and possible related engine wear, since the use of low viscosity engine oils could imply higher degradation rates and/or unwanted wear performance. Potential higher wear could result in a reduction in life cycle for the ICE, and higher degradation rates would be translated in a reduction of the oil drain period, both of them non-desired effects. In addition, currently limited data are available regarding “real-world” performance of low viscosity engine oils in a real service fleet.
Technical Paper

Development of CNG/Diesel Dual-Compatible Engine Oil for Heavy-Duty Trucks in Thailand

2017-10-08
2017-01-2350
In Thailand, most heavy-duty trucks were equipped with diesel engine, while a small portion was equipped with compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. However, in the past few years the number of CNG fuel trucks in Thailand has increased significantly due to the cheaper cost of CNG. In general, the emphasis of heavy-duty diesel engine oil performance is on piston cleanliness and soot handling properties, while thermal and anti-oxidation properties are most critical for CNG engine oil performance. For truck fleet owners who operate both types of trucks, using the inappropriate oil that is not fit-for-purpose can adversely affect engine performance and reduce engine service lifespan under prolonged usage. A novel CNG/diesel engine oil was developed to meet both JASO DH-2 heavy-duty diesel engine oil performance and CNG engine oil performance. The candidate formulation was proved adequately fit for practical use regarding to thermal and anti-oxidation properties.
Technical Paper

Development of Model Based Closed Loop Control Strategy of SCR System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2383
Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a key technology for heavy-duty diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent nitric oxides (NOx) emission limits of regulations. The urea water solution injection control is critical for urea SCR systems to achieve high NOx conversion efficiency while keeping the ammonia (NH3) slip at a required level. In general, an open loop control strategy is sufficient for SCR systems to satisfy Euro IV and Euro V NOx emission limits. However, for Euro VI emission regulation, advanced control strategy is essential for SCR systems due to its more tightened NOx emission limit and more severe test procedure compared to Euro IV and Euro V. This work proposed an approach to achieve model based closed loop control for SCR systems to meet the Euro VI NOx emission limits. A chemical kinetic model of the SCR catalyst was established and validated to estimate the ammonia storage in the SCR catalyst.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Flame Accelerated Ignition on Rapid Compression Machine and Heavy Duty Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2242
A new ignition method named Flame Accelerated Ignition (FAI) is proposed in this paper. The FAI system composes of a spark plug and a flame acceleration tunnel with annular obstacles inside. The FAI was experimentally investigated on a rapid compression machine (RCM) with optical accessibility and a single-cylinder heavy duty research engine. In RCM, the flame is significantly accelerated and the combustion process is evidently enhanced by FAI. The ignition delay and the combustion duration are both sharply decreased compared with conventional spark ignition (CSI) case. According to the optical diagnostics, the flame rushes out of the exit of the flame acceleration tunnel at maximum axial speed over 40 m/s, which exceeds 10 times that of CSI flame propagation. In radial direction, the flame curls outwards near the tunnel exit and keeps growing afterwards.
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