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Technical Paper

Development of Air-Assisted Urea Injection Systems for Medium Duty Trucks

2017-09-04
2017-24-0112
Abstract Urea injection is required to meet EU IV to EU VI emission regulations as a main stream technical route to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx). In heavy and medium duty trucks, compressed air at 3-5 bar is often available, therefore can assist urea injection by mixing with urea, forming liquid droplets, and releasing mixed fluid into the exhaust gases. The development of air assisted urea pump and injectors, or the assembly, seemingly simpler than airless counterparts, however poses multiple challenges. One challenge is to properly mix urea in the mixing chamber inside pump with the compressed air, leaving no residual deposits while achieving high mixing efficiency. Another is to maintain good spray quality for a given length of delivery pipe as the liquid phase and gas phase tend to coalesce as they propagate along the pipe flow direction. In addition, the urea pump and injector need to provide robust and reliable performance under stringent road conditions.
Technical Paper

Estimating the CO2 Emissions Reduction Potential of Various Technologies in European Trucks Using VECTO Simulator

2017-09-04
2017-24-0018
Abstract Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for some 5% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. They present a variety of possible configurations that are deployed depending on the intended use. This variety makes the quantification of their CO2 emissions and fuel consumption difficult. For this reason, the European Commission has adopted a simulation-based approach for the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of HDVs in Europe; the VECTO simulation software has been developed as the official tool for the purpose. The current study investigates the impact of various technologies on the CO2 emissions of European trucks through vehicle simulations performed in VECTO. The chosen vehicles represent average 2015 vehicles and comprised of two rigid trucks (Class 2 and 4) and a tractor-trailer (Class 5), which were simulated under their reference configurations and official driving cycles.
Journal Article

Model-Based Control of BMEP and NOx Emissions in a Euro VI 3.0L Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0057
Abstract A model-based approach to control BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and NOx emissions has been developed and assessed on a FPT F1C 3.0L Euro VI diesel engine for heavy-duty applications. The controller is based on a zero-dimensional real-time combustion model, which is capable of simulating the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, BMEP and NOx engine-out levels. The real-time combustion model has been realized by integrating and improving previously developed simulation tools. A new discretization scheme has been developed for the model equations, in order to reduce the accuracy loss when the computational step is increased. This has allowed the required computational time to be reduced to a great extent.
Journal Article

A New Piston Insulation Concept for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines to Reduce Heat Loss from the Wall

2017-09-04
2017-24-0161
Abstract To reduce heat transfer between hot gas and cavity wall, thin Zirconia (ZrO2) layer (0.5mm) on the cavity surface of a forged steel piston was firstly formed by thermal spray coating aiming higher surface temperature swing precisely synchronized with flame temperature near the wall resulting in the reduction of temperature difference. However, no apparent difference in the heat loss was analyzed. To find out the reason why the heat loss was not so improved, direct observation of flame impingement to the cavity wall was carried out with the top view visualization technique, for which one of the exhaust valves was modified to a sapphire window. Local flame behavior very close to the wall was compared by macrophotography. Numerical analysis by utilizing a three-dimensional simulation was also carried out to investigate the effect of several parameters on the heat transfer coefficient.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Different Turbocharger Configurations for a Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Combustion Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0164
Abstract The engine concept partially premixed combustion (PPC) has proved higher gross indicated efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion engines. The relatively simple implementation of the concept is an advantage, however, high gas exchange losses has made its use challenging in multi-cylinder heavy duty engines. With high rates of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to dilute the charge and hence limit the combustion rate, the resulting exhaust temperatures are low. The selected boost system must therefore be efficient which could lead to large, complex and costly solutions. In the presented work experiments and modelling were combined to evaluate different turbocharger configurations for the PPC concept. Experiments were performed on a multi-cylinder engine. The engine was modified to incorporate long route EGR and a single-stage turbocharger, however, with compressed air from the building being optionally supplied to the compressor.
Technical Paper

Gas Exchange and Injection Modeling of an Advanced Natural Gas Engine for Heavy Duty Applications

2017-09-04
2017-24-0026
Abstract The scope of the work presented in this paper was to apply the latest open source CFD achievements to design a state of the art, direct-injection (DI), heavy-duty, natural gas-fueled engine. Within this context, an initial steady-state analysis of the in-cylinder flow was performed by simulating three different intake ducts geometries, each one with seven different valve lift values, chosen according to an estabilished methodology proposed by AVL. The discharge coefficient (Cd) and the Tumble Ratio (TR) were calculated in each case, and an optimal intake ports geometry configuration was assessed in terms of a compromise between the desired intensity of tumble in the chamber and the satisfaction of an adequate value of Cd. Subsequently, full-cycle, cold-flow simulations were performed for three different engine operating points, in order to evaluate the in-cylinder development of TR and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) under transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Base-Flaps Under Variable Cross-Wind

2017-08-25
2017-01-7000
Abstract Road vehicles usually operate within windy environments. The combination of typical wind distributions and vehicle speeds, imposes on such vehicles aerodynamic yaw angles, β, which are often almost uniform up to 6° and relevant up to 14°. Drag saving devices are often optimized for zero cross-wind scenarios, minimizing drag only around these design conditions. This work presents the drag saving increase that an adaptive system can provide over a classic boat-tail. In the experimental set up employed, two flaps are located at the rear lateral edges of an Ahmed body and respectively set at angles θ1 and θ2 with respect to the model. To evaluate the efficacy of different flap positioning strategies under cross-wind, the model was tested in a wind tunnel, , with and without flaps at yaw angles β = 0°, 3°, 6° or 9°. The flap sizes tested, δ, were 9% or 13% of the body width. For each β and δ, the maps of drag against the two flap angles were obtained.
Technical Paper

Reliability of Engineering Methods in Heavy-Vehicle Aerodynamics

2017-08-25
2017-01-7001
Abstract The improved performance of heavy-duty vehicles as transport carriers is essential for economic reasons and to fulfil new emission standards in Europe. A key parameter is the aerodynamic vehicle drag. An enormous potential still exists for fuel saving and reducing exhaust emission by aerodynamic optimisation. Engineering methods are required for developments in vehicle aerodynamics. To assess the reliability of the most common experimental testing and numerical simulation methods in the industrial design process is the objective of this article. Road tests have been performed to provide realistic results, which are compared to the results obtained by scale-model wind tunnel experiments and time-averaged computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These engineering methods are evaluated regarding their deployment in the industrial development process. The investigations focus on the separated flow region behind the vehicle rear end.
Technical Paper

Electronic Horizon: A Map as a Sensor and Predictive Control

2017-08-25
2017-01-1945
Abstract During recent years, all major North American and European commercial vehicle OEMs have introduced predictive functionalities based on an electronic horizon for their on-highway fleets. This is a system concept that lets vehicles know what is happening on the road ahead and allows them to react to that information without driver involvement. When an electronic horizon is used in heavy-duty trucks, a significant reduction in fuel consumption is possible as a key application. This is achieved by optimizing the algorithms in the engine control unit, the transmission control device or other control units in the vehicle. There is a clear business case for the vehicle owners. In this paper we review the long development from early navigation technologies to an in-vehicle sensor, called an electronic horizon. We present an overview of different architectures from several perspectives as well as multiple use cases for commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

Soot Formation in EGR & Non EGR with SCR After Treatment in Light Duty Truck Application

2017-07-10
2017-28-1945
Abstract During the last few decades, concerns have grown on the negative effects that diesel particulate matter has on health. Because of this, particulate emissions were subjected to restrictions and various emission-reduction technologies were developed. It is ironic that some of these technologies led to reductions in the legislated total particulate mass while neglecting the number of particles. Focusing on the mass is not necessarily correct, because it might well be that not the mass but the number of particles and the characteristics of them (size, composition) have a higher impact on health. During the diesel engine combustion process, soot particles are produced which is very harmful for the atmosphere. Particulate matter is composed of much organic and inorganic composition which was analyzed after the optimization of SCR and EGR engine out.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Validation of Propeller Shaft Mounting Brackets for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles

2017-07-10
2017-28-1947
Abstract A propeller shaft is a mechanical component of drive train that connects transmission to drive wheels/axle with the goal to transfer rotation and torque. It is used when the direct connection between transmission and drive axle is not possible due to large distance between their respective assigned design spaces. In commercial vehicles especially in heavy duty (GVW/GCW>15 tons) a single piece propeller shaft is seldom used due to its inherent disadvantages and therefore, most if not all, of the setups consists of multiple pieces of propeller shaft which are directly mounted on to frame cross members with the help of mounting brackets. As such the mounting bracket assembly undergoes various dynamic and static loading conditions and should be able to withstand these loads. This paper will focus on the FEA analysis of propeller shaft mounting assembly system.
Technical Paper

Technology Challenges and Strategies for BS-VI in Commercial Vehicles

2017-07-10
2017-28-1937
Abstract Air Pollution is a major concern in our country due to which Indian Government has taken a decision to move from BS-IV to BS-VI which is nearly 90% reduction in NOx and 50% in particulate matter along with addition of particulate number regulation for BS-VI in comparison to BS-IV norms in very short span of time. Vehicle manufacturers are also having the challenge to produce low cost and fuel efficient product with BS-VI solution in order to meet tightening emission regulations and increasing needs of lower fuel consumption. Detailed study is done with different approaches to meet BS-VI emission which is elaborately explained in different aspect of engine design and after treatment parameter with its pros and cons. After Treatment selection plays an important role in engine development to meet stringent emission legislations and customer demands. Strategies for BS-VI were described with the advantage and drawbacks for after treatment selection.
Technical Paper

Noise Source Identification and Exterior Noise Reduction of a Commercial Vehicle

2017-07-10
2017-28-1936
Abstract Exterior noise reduction of a vehicle has become important nowadays in order to meet the stringent pass by noise regulations. First step in this process is the identification of dominant noise sources. There are several noise sources which can contribute to the pass by noise like gearbox, turbocharger, oil sump, exhaust muffler, air intake etc. The dominant noise sources can be identified with the near field noise, component vibration measurements combined with experimental modal analysis. This paper discusses about the noise source identification and exterior noise reduction of a shortest wheel base intermediate commercial vehicle, which is having a 4-cylinder inline diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Construction of a Low Cost Cutting Tool Dynamometer and Static Calibration of Measuring Cutting Force in a CNC Milling Machine

2017-07-10
2017-28-1931
Abstract In this work an attempt is made to design and fabricate a low cost dynamometer for measuring cutting forces in three directions in a CNC vertical milling machine. The dynamometer is designed and fabricated to withstand load up to 5000 N along ‘X’, ‘Y’ and ‘Z’ axis. Milling dynamometer developed in this work, consists of four octagonal rings as an elastic member on which strain gauges are mounted for measuring the cutting forces. Suitable materials for the fixture and for the octagonal rings are chosen for constructing the dynamometer. Structural analysis has been carried out to check the safe design of the dynamometer assembly consisting of fixture and the octagonal rings for the maximum loading conditions. Static calibration of the dynamometer is carried out using slotted weight method by simulating the actual conditions. Calibration chart was prepared for three directions by relating load and corresponding strain.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Approach Towards Engine Mounting System Vibration Isolation Performance Validation in Commercial Vehicles

2017-07-10
2017-28-1928
Abstract Engine mounts and mounting brackets play a critical role in determining NVH performance of a vehicle. A lot of work has been done in the area of virtual simulation using FE models to study engine mounting system performance and its impact on vehicle level performance. An overall approach towards engine mounting system validation at vehicle level is also very critical to validate simulation results in a prototype based on which further refinement work will be carried. In this paper a detailed procedure for engine mount and mounting bracket physical validation at vehicle level is presented. Various tests to be performed at vehicle level to quantify engine mount and mounting bracket performance parameters is discussed in detail along with measurement procedures and techniques. Test results are interpreted and its impact on overall performance is also explained.
Technical Paper

Noise Reduction on Agricultural Tractor by Stiffening Sheet Metal Components

2017-07-10
2017-28-1925
Abstract The automotive market has seen a steady increase in customer demands for quiet and more comfortable tractors. High noise at Operator Ear Level (OEL) of tractor is the major cause of fatigue to the operator. With growing competition, and upcoming legislative requirement there is ominous need for the agricultural tractor manufacturers to control noise levels. The objective of this study is noise reduction on agricultural tractor by stiffening sheet metal components. The design and analysis plays a major role for determining the root cause for the problem. Once the problem and its root cause were well defined, the solution for addressing the problem would be made clear. The engine excitation frequency and Sheet metal Components such as fender and platform natural frequency were coming closer and are leading to resonance.
Technical Paper

Fabrication and Experimental Analysis of Epoxy-Glass Fiber Composite Leaf Spring

2017-07-10
2017-28-1985
Abstract Conventional materials like steel, brass, aluminum etc will fail without any indication, cracks initiation, propagation, will takes place with a short span. Now-a-days to overcome these problem, conventional materials are replaced by hybrid composite material. Not only have this conventional material failed to meet the requirement of high technology applications, like space applications and marine applications and structural applications in order to meet the above requirements new materials are being searched. Hybrid composites materials found to the best alternative with its unique capacity of designing the materials to give required properties and light weight. This paper aims to preparing hybrid composite using artificial fibers. Epoxy as resin and glass fiber as fiber for artificial hybrid composite to make a laminate for preparing leaf spring.
Technical Paper

Combined Spatter and Immersion Type Oil Cooling System for Multi Disc Wet Clutch Transmission in Tractors

2017-07-10
2017-28-1976
Abstract The utility of tractors in India has grown and is growing. Other than in agricultural area, it finds use in non-agricultural and construction/ earthmoving applications like loaders, dozers, power source, etc. The tractors that are subjected to heavy duty cycles are mostly with conventional dry type clutches. These types of dry clutch when operated in heavy application generate large amount of heat within shorter period of time on the surface of friction discs. This increase in disc surface temperature weakens the friction material property & bonding element leading to deterioration and decreasing the life of clutch. This curtails the clutch life extensively and is a big challenge to farmers and tractor users. The frequent clutch failures not only increases the operating cost, but also the servicing of clutches in the tractor fitted with heavy attachments leads to a higher downtime and service cost.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis of Engine down Speeding in Emission & Fuel Economy

2017-07-10
2017-28-1921
Abstract Engine down speeding is rapidly picking up momentum in many segment of world market. Numerous engine down speeding packages from OEM have been tailored to take advantage of the increased efficiencies associated with engine down speeding. Running engine at lower rpm has numerous advantages. The most obvious of these is reduced fuel consumption, since the engine can spend more time running within its optimum efficiency range. By down speeding, the engine is made to run at low speeds and with high torques. For the same power, the engine is operated at higher specific load- Brake Mean Effective pressure (BMEP) which results in higher efficiency and reduced fuel consumption-Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The reasons for increased fuel efficiency are reduced engine friction due to low piston speeds, reduced relative heat transfer and increased thermodynamic efficiency.
Journal Article

Experimental Analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle Plant Bottoming a Heavy-Duty Engine Using Axial Turbine as Prime Mover

2017-06-29
2017-01-9279
Abstract The use of reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) dominates the sector of the on-road transportation, both for passengers and freight. CO2 reduction is the present technological driver, considering the major worldwide greenhouse reduction targets committed by most governments in the western world. In the near future (2020) these targets will require a significant reduction with respect to today’s goals, reinforcing the importance of reducing fuel consumption. In ICEs more than one third of the fuel energy used is rejected into the environment as thermal waste through exhaust gases. Therefore, a greater fuel economy could be achieved if this energy is recovered and converted into useful mechanical or electrical power on board. For long haul vehicles, which run for hundreds of thousands of miles per year at relatively steady conditions, this recovery appears especially worthy of attention.
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