There is a two-step migration in the Indian automotive industry from Bharat stage IV to Bharat stage VI emission norms. This emission regulatory migration demands substantial engineering efforts to design, develop and validate engine, engine components, and complete exhaust after-treatment system. In this context, cylinder bore distortion plays a vital role in engine blow-by, oil consumption, and its effect on DPF ash loading. For Bharat stage VI engines, overall thermal loading is increased which exerts higher mechanical & thermal stresses over the engine and subsequent components. Increased engine bore distortion has ill effects on the engine and after-treatment devices. Reduction of bore distortion helps piston rings to confirm with the bore, which results in low oil passing through rings towards the combustion chambers which finally results in low oil burn off in the combustion chamber.
The influence of rising bubble on the heat transfer enhancement from vertical heated surface immersed in water has been investigated. The family of Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation are solved on a fixed grid using the Finite Volume formulation of SIMPLE algorithm and VOF Method with Piecewise Linear Interface Construction (PLIC) algorithm is used to track the position of interface between two-fluids with different fluid properties. The Computations are performed for two bubble injection distances (6mm and 12mm) from the heated vertical surface. It has been found that the distance from the bubble path to the heated surface has a significant effect on the heat transfer enhancement from the surface. The heat transfer enhancement is more when the bubble is closer to the heated surface and decreases as the horizontal distance between the bubble injection point and the heated surface increases.
There is a huge shift in Indian emission standards and that had made a huge impact on engineering work allied with engines and their AFT devices. The piston is most loaded with thermomechanical stresses and early detection of failure can save much time, cost and overall organization can focus to make more robust, technically fit, and reliable products to market. So, it is important to know the effect of engine operating conditions on power cylinder components and other related systems during the development phase of an engine. The operating temperatures are known to be affected by various calibration/control parameters relating to sub-systems like air handling, injection, and cooling systems. These are often tuned based on performance and emission requirements.
Meeting advanced emission norms involves multiple techniques and it has always been a challenging task on attaining the same. Improving the exhaust temperature is indispensable in order to enhance better conversion efficiency on the after treatment systems. This paper clearly investigates on the various strategies involved in order to improve the temperatures of selective catalytic reduction and post injection techniques to meet the emission norms. On the basis of MIDC operation, key load points were selected and split injections with three pulses were implemented. The variation of both the post injection timing and quantity were performed in this paper in order to evaluate the optimum output. The effect of post injection timing and quantity variation on hydrocarbon emissions, carbon monoxide, diesel oxidation catalyst temperatures was observed on all load points. The above strategy was also evaluated on generating the pressure crank angle data.
In the research and composite material design, predicting elasticity based on phase characteristics is a critical challenge. In comparison to experimental and analytical techniques, there are several advantages of using finite element modelling based microstructure of composite Representative Volume Elements (RVE).Nevertheless; there are some drawbacks to RVE's traditional geometry-based finite element modelling (GB-FEM), such as the time it takes to build usable modelling and produce substantial finite element meshes. To address these problems, we developed and improved a voxel-based finite element modelling (VB-FEM) method. VB-FEM, unlike GB-FEM, creates a homogeneous grid mesh first and then detects components that correspond to inclusions. The remainders of the stages are identical to those in GB-FEM. In two illustrative numerical instances, GB-FEM and VB-FEM were compared in terms of performance. GB-FEM and VB-FEM were compared in terms of performance.
Throughout the middle of the 20th century, most farm tractors used a pressed steel frame chassis as a supporting part of the tractor where all the components are mounted together. Farm tractors generally used in the agricultural field experiences a variation in the load and vibrations, which leads to failure/fracture in the frame/chassis. In order to reduce the failure/fractures in the chassis/frame, high strength materials are used. Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to identify the best suitable high strength material and most suitable cross section for a mini tractor chassis, so as to make it very strong to bear the heavy loads and shocks received while working on the farms in both static and dynamic conditions. In the present work, ladder chassis is designed and analyzed with three different types of cross sections like C, I and Hollow rectangular box type cross section.
In this present investigation, combustion, noise and vibration characteristics were studied in a direct injection compression ignition engine by blending of 20% Pongamia biodiesel with neat diesel. Experiments were conducted with different fuel injection pressures and injection timings. The brake thermal efficiency of the biodiesel blend found increased to 1.75% when the fuel was injected at 200 bar and 23° before top dead center. Higher engine vibration of 5.5% was observed in Y-axis at the fuel injection pressure of 250 bar with the injection timing of 25° bTDC when comparing to the standard operating condition of the engine. The combustion noise level found decreased to 4% when the fuel injection time increased from 21 to 23° bTDC. From Artificial Neural Network analysis, two metrics, such as Coefficient of correlation (R) and Mean Square Error (MSE), were found as 0.99 and 12.6, respectively.
The important necessity for a formula vehicle is light weight with high strength and higher performance. The un-sprung weight reduction is the most prevalent consideration while designing the formula vehicle. Our proposed study is focused to design and develop a formula vehicle knuckle through generative design method and fabricate the composite knuckle for field test. Considering the manufacturing complications continuous fused filament fabrication technique was consider by using carbon fiber composites test samples data sets was taken to modeled the generative designed knuckle. The primary work involves the designing of a steering knuckle with the help of computation software considering to estimating the loads which are acting on it. Design optimization was performed under varying loading conditions and von-misses stress response are recorded.
Fuel consumption of heavy duty vehicles (HDV) is one of the major challenges in automotive industry. In recent days, the gasoline prices have been raised highly, so the HDVs need to be designed more fuel-efficient. Many studies reported that, aerodynamic optimization is one of the most important advancements in terms of fuel-efficient HDVs, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool or approach is widely accepted for aerodynamic analysis. In this study, the flow zones with the large pressure drag and design parameters are identified, and appropriate geometric changes are incorporated in the design. The computational results shows that, the drag reduction of individual devices in cab and trailer is 16.8% and the cab deflector and boat tails are the most effective individual geometry and is successfully reducing the drag up to 20%.
Aircraft cabin temperature is controlled by regulating the cabin supply air temperature. This supply air temperature is a critical parameter which varies with respect to aircraft altitude and to be maintained properly to the required value corresponding to that altitude to have a good comfortable condition inside the cockpit. It is affected by many internal factors like engine bleed air flow rate, pressure, and temperature and also with external factors like ambient temperature, pressure, and attitude. Due to huge variations in these parameters especially in a fighter aircraft, the cabin temperature control system of this aircraft is often experience limit cycle oscillations and subsequent cabin temperature fluctuations. To minimize the cabin temperature fluctuations, suitable control logic need to be considered at the design stage itself to avoid future tuning of such control system which makes additional flight-tests and generates large expenses.
Abstract: In recent days the usage of Electro - Hydraulic Control Unit (EHCU) is increased acutely in light passenger vehicle applications apart from the passenger cars. The main advantage of using electronic control unit (EHCU) is operational flexibility, consistent performance customization, increase durability and lower running cost. During running, the mechanical load is converted into the electronic signal by using transmitter. The electronic devices are highly responsive when compared with mechanical devices, so, it is necessary to reduce the Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) in the system. As per the recent trend, the NVH pollution should be as low as possible in the vehicle. It is necessary to maintain the NVH in minimum level in the electronic device to meet the overall performance of the system. The vibrational isolator is one of the key components used in electro – hydraulic Control unit to reduce the noise and vibration implication of the system.
The numerous applications and desirable attributes of Monel 400 urge many researchers to undertake multiple systematic evaluation studies for diverse manufacturing operations. Because of their exceptional mechanical qualities and great corrosion resistance, nickel-based alloys, particularly Monel 400, are increasing in popularity in a variety of applications. Because of their tendency for rapid work hardening and low thermal conductivity, these materials are particularly difficult to machine using traditional manufacturing techniques. Advanced material removal methodologies have been applied to eliminate such drawbacks and are regarded as a suitable alternative approach to traditional machining processes. Based on the Electrical Discharge Machining technique, Wire Electrical Discharge Machining was developed, which a sophisticated machining technology is used to machine hard materials with complex forms in any electrically conducting materials.
Improved economic status of people leads to an increase in vehicle density across the world. Many road accidents caused due to poor lane discipline followed by drivers that need to be addressed. Lane discipline can be made possible by educating drivers about its importance and also ensured by effective detection and tracking of vehicles that are plying on the highways. This can be achieved by fixing a device in every vehicle that can detect and track the lane adopted by the vehicle driver during each journey. In this work, a simple lane tracking and detective device is fabricated that consists of an ultrasonic sensor, which is the primary detector that helps in identifying the lane in which the vehicle is moving. The position of the vehicle is recorded by calculating the distance between the right side of the vehicle and the divider that is placed in between the highways.
Primarily, Acoustic performance of muffler are evaluated by insertion loss (IL) and backpressure/restriction. Where Insertion loss is mainly depends upon proper selection of muffler volume, which is proportional to Engine Swept volume, along with internal design configuration, which drives the acoustic principle. Same time, meeting the vehicle level pass by noise (PBN) value as per regulatory norms and system level backpressure as per engine specification sheet are the key evaluating criteria of any good exhaust system. Here, a new Reactive/Reflective type muffler of tiny size have designed for heavy commercial vehicle application, which is unique in shape and innovative to meet desire performance. In this design, mainly sudden expansion, sudden contraction, flow through perforation and bell-mouth flow phenomenon are used.
Aluminium alloys are attracting importance in various engineering industries because of their exceptional characteristics such as strength, resistance to oxidation etc., AA5052 is an alloy that categorized under Al-Mg series, commonly adopted in anti-rust applications, especially for desalination applications because of its good corrosion resistance in seawater at temperatures up to 125°C, low cost, good thermal conductivity, and non-toxicity of its corrosion products. Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) is one of the approaches that are economically affordable and also eco-friendly used in various machining operations. This present exploration details the investigation CNC turning of AA5052 alloy with conventional Tungsten Carbide (WC) tool inserts under MQL conditions. There are two different natural cutting fluids were engaged such as Olive oil and Coconut oil.
The present paper focuses on investigating the effect of the elliptical cut-out at the center of the plate by comparing the perforated and non-perforated plates. The motivation behind the study is to understand the behavior of thin plates when subjected to vibration using finite element analysis. Towards this investigation a consideration of thin rectangular plate is done. The accuracy of the present work is done by numerical and simulation validation using ANSYS software. Materials mostly preferred in automotive and aero plane bodies, aluminum alloy and stainless steel are considered to understand the vibrations in these plates. Accordingly, variations are done in plate’s boundary condition, changes in the cut-out’s geometries are done. The most preferential boundary condition is the one which provides less vibration in the plates when put in use. Keywords: - Boundary conditions, elliptical cut-out, vibration
The objective of the bearing materials is to reduce the friction and enhance the movement between two parts. The main aim of our project is to focus on the wear, tensile and fatigue characteristics of engine journal bearing material. The engine bearings are mainly classified into main bearings and journal bearings. The journal bearing material was made by cladding process. It is formed in two types of shape one is circular and the other is on dog bone shape. Both of the specimens were made as per ASTM standards. The material on which the test specimen was made on steel platted copper material and Aluminium 1020. The circular shape specimen was subjected to wear test on Pin on Disc method and the wear calculations were calculated in microns. The dog bone shape specimen was tested on tensile strength on Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The stress strain curve was obtained. The specimen will subject to fatigue test by using of fatigue test machines.
Numerically investigating the effect of fiber orientation angle and control factor which an important factors is for minimize the deflection of laminated composites. The aim of the paper is to observe the deflection analysis of laminated rectangular plates subjected to cantilever type and fixed ended type by changing control factors. The plate made up of Glass fiber reinforced polymer composite (GFRP) used. The plates having 12 plies subjected to self-weight which analyzed using different orientation angle by using Taguchi method and finite element method and maximum deflection were computed for each layer. Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array used to obtain different orientation angle of fiber and arrangement. The orientation angle for 3 control factor varies (100 to 900) and for 4 control factor (7.50 to 900). Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio used to estimate optimum levels for minimum deflection value of control factors.