This paper investigates the performance, emission and combustion of a four cylinder common-rail turbocharged diesel engine using jatropha curcas biodiesel blends (JCB). The test was performed with various ratios of jatropha curcas methyl ester (JCME) in the blends (JCB10, JCB20, JCB30, and JCB50). An artificial neural networks (ANN) model based on standard back-propagation algorithm was used to predict combustion, performance and emissions characteristics of the engine using MATLAB. To acquire data for training and testing of the proposed ANN, the different engine speeds (1500-3500 rpm) was selected as the input parameter, whereas combustion, performance and emissions were chosen as the output parameters for ANN modeling of a common-rail turbocharged diesel engine. The performance, emissions and combustion of the ANN were validated by comparing the prediction dataset with the experimental results. The results show that the correlation coefficient was successfully controlled within the range 0.9798-0.9999 for the ANN model and test data. The value of MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) was within the range 1.2373-6.4217 and the Root Mean Square (RSME) value was below 0.05 by the model, which is acceptable. This study shows that modeling techniques as an approach in alternative energy can give improvement advantage of reliability in the prediction of performance and emission of internal combustion engines.